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(Continued from "Military")


access to the Black Sea and their ally, Russia.
...May 24.  After a month of fighting, an armistice was declared at Anzac.  Australian, New Zealand and Turkish troops spent five hours burying hundreds of their dead in No-man's Land between the trenches.

...August 7. 
The Battle for Chunuk Bair began, with the Wellington Battalion capturing the
hill the following day.
It was the only time in the campaign that Allied troops saw their original objective - the Dardanelles.  After hours of massive Turkish counter-attacks the battalion was driven back, suffering heavy losses.
...December 8 - 20.  Anzac cove was evacuated.  Of the 8,556 New Zealanders who served in Gallipoli 2,721 died and. 4,752 were wounded - an 87% casualty rate.

1918  At the Western Front the 10-day battle for Bapaume began. This was the beginning of the end of World War I.
...25 September.  Palestine - The Anzac Division captured Amman, and on September 28 the Turkish IV Army surrendered to the Anzacs at Kastal.
...4 November.  At the Western Front - using scaling ladders New Zealand troops attacked the 20 metre high ramparts of the fortress town of Le Quesnoy and captured it.  This was the last major action of the war for the New Zealand Division.

World War I. 
STATISTICS. Almost 10% of the total population and 42% of males aged between 19 and 45 saw active service for New Zealand during World War I.  Of these 100,444 New Zealanders 16,6697 lost their lives and 41,317 were wounded - a casualty rate of 58%.

1939 SECOND WORLD WAR, results in New Zealanders participating in nearly every theatre of the war suffering possibly the highest casualty  rates per capita of any participant.

1945 WORLD WAR II STATISTICS. During World War II 104,988 men and women served overseas in the 2nd New Zealand Expeditionary Force.  Of these 6,839 died, 15,324 were wounded and 8,385 were made prisoners of war.  Most of the casualties - 5,363 dead and 15,108 wounded - occurred in the Middle East and Mediterranean theatres of war.

...THE COMBINED CASUALTIES OF BOTH WORLD WARS: 23,536 DIED, 56,641 WOUNDED.

1950 New Zealand naval and ground forces go to Korea.

1965 New Zealand sends troops to Vietnam and protests begin.

oOo

Mining

1842  Gold.  The first traces of gold found in New Zealand are said to have been found by survey parties in Nelson, and whalers in the Coromandel.

1844 Coal.  May 6.  A surveyor, Frederick Tuckett made the first discovery of coal in New Zealand at Coal Point, Kaitangata.

1848  Coal.  January 26.  Thomas Brunner discovered coal on the West Coast, and the field was subsequently named after him.

1852  Gold.  The first workable discovery of gold in New Zealand was made by Charles Ring at Kupanga Stream, Coromandel.

1856  Gold.  Gold was found in Nelson in the Aorere Valley near Collingwood and a year later in the Collingwood-Takaka district.  These fields were worked for more than ten years.

1861  Gold.  May.  Gabriel Read collected 7 ozs of gold in the Tuapeka River, Central Otago.  This area became known as Gabriel's Gully and the discovery led to the New Zealand gold rushes.  By the end of the year over 200,000 oz of gold worth 750,000 pounds had been produced from the Otago goldfields.

1862 Gold.  August.  Christopher Reilly and Horatio Hartley discovered gold at the junction of the Clutha and Kawarau rivers - the site of Cromwell.  A new gold rush began exploiting the valleys of Central Otago.  The export of gold from Otago in 11863 was valued at more than Two million pounds.

1864  Gold.  Gold discovered on the West Coast.

1864 Coal.  July 28.  The first shipment of coal was made from the West Coast.
..Gold.  July.  Gold found at Greenstone Creek sparked off a rush to the area and over the next few years thousands of miners many of them from the Australian fields flocked to the West Coast as new discoveries were made.  In 1886 the West Coast exported gold worth Two million pounds but by the following year production was declining rapidly.

1890  Gold.  The Waihi Gold Mining Co. began operating the Martha Mine.

1912 Gold.  The Waihi Gold Strike.

oOo

Missionaries

...until the end of the 1820's Christianity was not received with enthusiasm by the Maori.  The missionaries were accused of coming to take the land: their demands of an end to slavery, polygamy, cannibalism, infanticide and other Maori institutions were seen as making slaves of chiefs.

Early 1800 Mission stations begin to be established.

1814 June 10 - July 25.  Missionaries William Hall and Thomas Kendall were in the Bay of Islands on the Brig Active. They had been sent by Samuel Marsden to investigate the feasibility of settling three mission families there.
...December 25.
Samuel Marsden first preached to a Maori congregation.

1838 Bishop Pompallier arrived at the Bay of Islands and established a Roman Catholic Mission.
...10 January 1838.  Bishop Jean Baptiste Pompallier who had been a member of a wealthy Lyons family and was appointed Vicar Apostolic of Western Oceania and consecrated Bishop of

(Missionaries continued)

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